We are interested in understanding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and the basis of vastly different susceptibilities to this disease. Tuberculous infection results in the formation of granulomas, complex immune structures that are composed of differentiated macrophages, lymphocytes and other immune cells. However, bacteria can persist within granulomas despite the development of antigen-specific immunity. To understand the mechanistic basis of mycobacterial persistence, the mechanisms of granuloma formation and its role in tuberculosis, we have developed the zebrafish as model to study immunity to tuberculosis. Zebrafish are naturally susceptible to tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. We exploit the optical transparency and genetic tractability of the zebrafish to monitor the infection process in real-time and modulate it using genetically defined host and bacterial mutants. We have employed both forward and reverse genetics to understand the basis of host resistance and susceptibility to TB. Our research is shedding light on TB pathogenesis as well as fundamental mechanisms of immune cell chemotaxis, adhesion and aggregation as well as immune regulation. Findings made in the zebrafish have been borne out in human populations and are informing new strategies for intervention.
Cell Publication August 2019 - TNF Induces Pathogenic Programmed Macrophage Necrosis in Tuberculosis through a Mitochondrial-Lysosomal-Endoplasmic Reticulum Circuit. F.J. Roca, L.J. Whitworth, S. Redmond, A.A. Jones, L. Ramakrishnan. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.004
M.A. Behr, P.H. Edelstein, L. Ramakrishnan 2018. Revisiting the timetable of tuberculosis. BMJ Aug 23;362:k2738 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k2738
A.J. Pagan, L. Ramakrishnan 2018. The formation and function of granulomas. Annu Rev Immunol Apr 26;36:639-665 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-100022
C.J. Cambier, S.M. O'Leary, M.P. O'Sullivan, J. Keane, L. Ramakrishnan 2017. Phenolic Glycolipid facilitates mycobacterial escape from microbicidal tissue-resident macrophages. Immunity 47:552-565 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2017.08.003
C.A. Madigan, C.J. Cambier, K.M. Kelly-Scumpia, P.O. Scumpia, T.Y. Cheng, J. Zailaa, B.R. Bloom, D.B. Moody, S.T. Smale, A. Sagasti, R.L. Modlin, L. Ramakrishnan. 2017. A macrophage response to Mycobacterium leprae phenolic glycolipid initiates nerve damage in leprosy. Cell:170:973-985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.07.030