Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall responsible for most ischaemic cardiovascular diseases and stroke, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. Although not sharing all risk factors for atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is also characterised by an inflammatory and destructive remodelling of the vessel wall and is responsible for a significant number of deaths in Western Countries. Both innate and adaptive immune responses have been involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and AAA. However, there is currently no specific therapeutic strategy targeting the immuno-inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and no medical therapy has been approved for the prevention of progression or rupture of AAA. Deciphering the role of specific subtypes of immune cells would lead to new, potent and specific therapeutic strategies to limit these devastating diseases.
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