We are interested in understanding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and the basis of vastly different susceptibilities to this disease. Tuberculous infection results in the formation of granulomas, complex immune structures that are composed of differentiated macrophages, lymphocytes and other immune cells. However, bacteria can persist within granulomas despite the development of antigen-specific immunity. To understand the mechanistic basis of mycobacterial persistence, the mechanisms of granuloma formation and its role in tuberculosis, we have developed the zebrafish as model to study immunity to tuberculosis. Zebrafish are naturally susceptible to tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. We exploit the optical transparency and genetic tractability of the zebrafish to monitor the infection process in real-time and modulate it using genetically defined host and bacterial mutants. We have employed both forward and reverse genetics to understand the basis of host resistance and susceptibility to TB. Our research is shedding light on TB pathogenesis as well as fundamental mechanisms of immune cell chemotaxis, adhesion and aggregation as well as immune regulation. Findings made in the zebrafish have been borne out in human populations and are informing new strategies for intervention.
C.J. Cambier , S. Falkow, L. Ramakrishnan. 2014. Host Evasion and Exploitation Schemes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell. 159:1497-1509.
L. Ramakrishnan. 2014. The zebrafish guide to tuberculosis immunity and treatment. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 78:179-92.
C.J. Cambier, K.K. Takaki, R.P. Larson, R.E. Hernandez, D.M. Tobin, K.B. Urdahl, C.L. Cosma, L. Ramakrishnan. 2014. Mycobacteria manipulate macrophage recruitment through coordinated use of membrane lipids. Nature 505, 218-22
F.J. Roca and L. Ramakrishnan. 2013. TNF dually mediates resistance and susceptibility to mycobacteria via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Cell 153, 521-534
D.M. Tobin, F.J. Roca, S.F. Oh, R. McFarland, T.W. Vickery, J.P. Ray, D.C. Ko, Y. Zou, N.D. Bang, T.T. Chau, J.C. Vary, T.R. Hawn, S.J. Dunstan, J. J. Farrar, G.E. Thwaites, M.C. King, C.N. Serhan, L. Ramakrishnan. 2012. Host Genotype Directed Therapies can Optimize the Inflammatory Response to Mycobacterial Infections. Cell 148:434-46.
K.N. Adams, K.K Takaki, L.E. Connolly, H. Wiedenhoft, K. Winglee, O. Humbert, P.E. Edelstein, C.L. Cosma, L. Ramakrishnan. 2011. Drug Tolerance in Replicating Mycobacteria Induced by a Macrophage-Induced Efflux Mechanism. Cell, 145, 39-53